Many properties of a single photon, such as density, rest mass, and orbital angular momentum, are still unknown. In a previous study, the photon was presented as a superfluid prolate spheroid structure, with a long-axis radius, short-axis radius, and volume, embodied with two spins—transversal and longitudinal—which are responsible for the three-dimensional helical trajectory of the electromagnetic wave.
In this study, the rest mass, density, and energy of photon are mathematically derived, and the relationship between the radius of photon and its frequency is demonstrated.
In addition, the difference between the Compton and de Broglie wavelengths is clarified. The calculated density, volume, and rest mass of photon agree with previous experimental results. The photon’s simultaneous longitudinal and transversal spins are moving forces of longitudinal and transversal trajectories, which are the origin of the three-dimensional helix shape of the electromagnetic field.
A new mechanism for the photon movement is proposed, and the reason for the zero mass moving photon is revealed; a traveling photon in space exhibits zero mass because its boundaries demonstrate zero relative velocity with the surrounding vacuum. The orbital angular momentum of photon is described using similar macroscopic rotation concepts and applying hydrodynamics laws.
A rotating photon is endowed with an angular velocity vector whose magnitude measures the speed with which the radius of the principal axis sweeps an angle, and whose direction indicates the principal axis of rotation and is given by the right-hand rule. The deviation angle is calculated using trigonometric functions, and the origin of the Lorenz factor is revealed.