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A theory employing the vortex shape of the electron was presented to resolve the enigma of the wave-particle duality. Conventions such as “particle” and “wave” were used to describe the behavior of quantum objects such as electrons. A superfluid vacuum formed the base to describe the basic vortex structure and properties of the electron, whereas various formulations derived from hydrodynamic laws described the electron vortex circumference, radius, angular velocity and angular frequency, angular momentum (spin) and magnetic momentum.

A vortex electron fully explained the associations between momentum and wave, and hydrodynamic laws were essential in deriving the energy and angular frequency of the electron. In general, an electron traveling in space possesses internal and external motions. To derive the angular frequency of its internal motion, the Compton wavelength was used to represent the length of one cycle of the internal motion that is equal to the circumference of the electron vortex. The angular frequency of the electron vortex was calculated to obtain the same value according to Planck’s theory.